Pregnancy is a rewarding as well as a tough stage for women. The nine month period brings about sea of changes in women many of which are positive and some negative. Such changes prevail on the pregnant women right from the day one of pregnancy till the birth of the baby. While hormonal fluctuations cause such changes, some pregnant women experience accumulation of liquids in the joints and joint pains while some experience breathing problems even at the slightest instant. The positive aspect to pregnancy in women is the faster rate of nail and hair growth owing to the iron and calcium supplements that are administered on them. Taking medical tests during the complete tenure of pregnancy is important and tests for each trimester changes.
The Tests To Be Taken During The Second Trimester Are Given Below:
1. Routine Screenings & Tests
There are some regular tests that are taken on all pregnant women like Pap smear tests, test to check for diseases like Gonorrhea and Chlamydia that are sexually transmitted. Blood test will be taken to ascertain Blood type, Anemia levels, HIV, Syphilis and Hepatitis B, to ascertain body’s immunity levels for Varicella and Rubella and Cystic Fibrosis. While these are done to ascertain the initial level health, Urine tests, Blood Test and weight will be checked during every visit to the Doctor till delivery.
2. Multiple Marker Screening
Between the 15th to 20th weeks Multiple Marker Test is taken on the pregnant women. This test is addressed in many names like Maternal Serum Screening and Maternal blood screening. This test measures a number of things and based on the same they are referred to as Triple marker tests or Triple Screen tests. When Inhibin A is measured through the tests, they are termed as Quadruple Marker Test or Quadruple Screen Test. These tests are taken to ascertain if a woman is carrying a healthy fetus or an affected one.
Ultrasound scans are usual prenatal care tests where sound waves are projected on the baby inside the mother’s womb to ascertain the right position and structure of the baby. The other names with which Ultra Sound is referred to as are Sonograph, Sonogram and Ultra sonogram. Ultrasound test is taken to ascertain pregnancies in the outer area of the Uterus if any, delivery date, number of fetuses in the womb, normalcy of the fetal heartbeat, fetal growth and kidney or gastrointestinal malfunctioning.
4. Glucose Screening
This test is typically done between the 24th to 28th months of Pregnancy to ascertain if the mother has acquired gestational diabetes so medication can be initiated accordingly to protect the baby from possible risks due to the same. Women who have high risk pregnancies may be tested for this earlier to avoid taking any risk. The test is performed in an hour’s gap after making the pregnant women drink some liquid high in sugar. If the sugar level is high, then you will be made to drink glucose solution in an empty stomach and blood tests taken once in 3 hours till the symptoms get normal.
5. Amino Centesis
Usually the fluid that surrounds the baby is highly amniotic providing genetic information that is vital to the entire process. The test is done to ascertain the possibility for any structural defects like Spinabifida or Down syndrome and congenital heart or kidney ailments in the fetus. The other ailments that get ascertained through such tests are Anencephaly, Phenylketonuria a type of disorder that is metabolic in nature, ailments that are usually inherited, heart disorders and Palate.
6. Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling (PUBS)
This test is usually done by the Doctors if they are not satisfied with the Ultrasound and Amniocentesis test results. A needle is inserted in to the umbilical Cord and blood collected through which observations pertaining to chromosomal defects or chromosome related disorders is done. When the fetus has any chromosomal deficiencies that are fatal can be quickly found and protective steps taken in the right time.
7. Fetal Doppler Ultrasound
This test is performed on the mother to ascertain the heart rate of the fetus, its breathing pattern and movements and viscosity of the blood. The umbilical arteries and veins are thoroughly scanned for any abnormalities in the fetus.
This test is performed using an instrument called Fetoscope either to evaluate the abnormalities in the fetus or to treat the fetus for abnormalities found in it. Some fetal abnormalities evaluated or treat through Fetoscopy are Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Urinal Tract obstruction, Twin Transfusion syndrome and Acardiac Twin. This test is done in two methods. One is External Fetoscopy and Endoscopic Fetoscopy.